Unlike endangered species, extinct species are those species that are not found alive on earth. They are known by references given over time. Throughout Earth’s history, there have been many species have become extinct because of climate changes, floods, volcanic eruptions, droughts and especially by the hand of man.
A species is considered extinct when the last member dies, therefore, that group ceases to exist. Because the distribution of a species can be very wide, it is almost impossible to specify the right moment of extinction. The increase in the human population and its considerable geographical distribution have allowed extinctions to occur more frequently during the last years.
It is well known that the main causes of extinction are the transformations of natural environments, such transformations are motivated by agricultural exploitation, logging, pollution, high impact constructions, poaching, wildlife trafficking, commercial hunting, sport hunting, and pest hunting.
The extinction of species causes the following effects to originate: Loss of genetic diversity. The few species that survive are vulnerable to diseases, fortuitous hunting and unforeseen changes in populations. However, the basic types of extinction of animals are:
Types of Extinction
1. Local extinction: This happens when a species is not located again in the area where it previously lived, however, it is still found in another part of the world.
2. Ecological extinction: It happens when the number of creatures of a species is very small and its intrapopulation genetic component is almost equal. What allows to increase, the genetic defects of the offspring, restricting the performance of the functions of the biological community in which they are found.
3. Biological extinction: This happens when a species is not relocated anywhere in the earth. Representing an irreversible loss of a single genetic load and of creatures whose evolution took thousands of years to create.
The extinction of species has always been considered as a natural process, which has originated on the planet throughout history, however, as has been observed, man is doing many things that are contributing to these extinctions and That is what should be avoided. Here are a series of measures that must be implemented in order to prevent extinctions:
Prohibit the hunting of animals, deforestation of forests; delimit protected areas and natural reserves, do not contaminate natural resources, encourage reproduction in captivity.
Below is a list of 17 species that are now extinct.
17 Animals that are now extinct
1. Mexican Grizzly Bear, 1964
Did you know that huge grizzly bears walked through Mexican lands? This species was hunted until its disappearance because it ate the cattle of the ranches. Only 30 of them remained until 1960, but in 1964 it was considered extinct.
2. Tijerilla de Santa Elena, 1967
Although its classification of extinct is not yet official, this bug on the island of Santa Elena, in the Atlantic Ocean, has not been seen alive since 1967. Searches in 1988, 1993 and 2003 found nothing.
3. Japanese sea lion, 1974
Hunting and destruction of their habitat by World War 2 ended this species. A baby was caught in 1974. In 2007, the South Korean government announced a plan to introduce the California sea lion into the spaces where his relative used to live.
4. Frog gastric incubator, 1983
This Australian frog swallowed fertilized eggs and “gave birth” to frogs fully developed by mouth. The last one died in captivity in 1983. She studied with the hope of finding a cure for ulcers.
5. Dark Coast Sparrow, 1987
A native of the Florida coast, this species died from pesticides and because NASA captured them for the Kennedy Space Center.
6. Golden toad, 1989
It is not yet known how this Costa Rican toad became extinct; The cause could be from climatic changes such as El Niño, global warming or pollution of its habitat.
7. Java Tiger, 1994
Due to the crops, this tiger’s habitat was lost. The last space where he was seen was on the highest mountain on the island of Java, in Indonesia.
8. Canary Oystercatcher, 1994
This bird lived in the Canary Islands. Commercial fishing left them without their food, oysters.
9. Woodpecker Ivory-billed, 1994
Although it is officially extinct, there are reports that he has seen it and there is even an audio recording of the distinctive sound that makes its peak when it hits the wood. There seems to be hope.
10. Pyrenean goat, 2000
The last specimen died in its natural habitat when a tree fell on it.
11. Mariana duck, 2004
He lived on three islands of the Pacific Ocean, but the loss of his habitat due to drought, crops and World War 2 led him to extinction. The last couple died in captivity at Sea World in San Diego in 1981.
12. Cyanerpes, 2004
The introduction of non-native species of Hawaii such as pigs, cats and rats, contributed to the extinction of this bird. It is still listed as “endangered” but none have been found despite extensive searches.
13. Baiji Dolphin, 2006
In 2007 a video was taken of what appears to be a dolphin of this species. However, it is considered “functionally extinct,” because even if there are a few in the sea, they will no longer be able to reproduce.
14. Caribbean monk seal, 2008
They were massively hunted in the 1700s and 1800s to obtain their fat, such as lamp oil or machinery. Its extinction also implied that of a mite that only lived inside the nostrils of this seal.
15. Zampullín, 2010
This duck lived alone in Madagascar until the loss of its habitat and hunting by non-native carnivorous fish ended with it.
16. West Black Rhinoceros, 2011
A subspecies of black rhino living in Cameroon was the victim of an extensive hunt, although it was banned from the 30’s. The other three subspecies of black rhino are in danger of extinction.
17. Pinta Island Turtle (Galapagos), June 24, 2012
George, the last turtle of his species died in a research facility. Its exact age is not known, it is only estimated that it passed 100 years.